Technology

HHO technology

History

In our days of constantly evolving technology, the so called ‘green technology’ and ‘free energy systems’ are becoming more and more of importance. For most of us it is unbelievable that a vehicle can run only on water, however inventor Yull Brown has developed a “water engine”, also named “Brown’s Gas Electrolyser”, which produces a unique mixture – HHO gas, only by splitting water through a process of electrolysis. Such experiments have been made during the Second World War, when military transport vehicles have been said to run on nothing but water.

Yull Brown sought to create this mixture – HHO gas, which some prefer to call Brown’s gas. It is also known as Rhode’s gas, oxyhydrogen gas or hydroxy gas. Born in Bulgaria under his real name Ilia Valkov in 1922, Yull Brown did his research mostly in Australia. He lived also in South California, where he patented his technology in 1977 and 1978. He was working for the Germans during the WW2, but was arrested and imprisoned by the Russians. He managed to escape from gulac and immigrated to Australia. In 1978 ‘Australian Post’ called Yull Brown “the most talked about inventor in Australia”  .

However he was not the first to have achieved a mixture of H2 and O2. Willian A. Rodes has patented his “Multicell Oxyhydrogen Generator” in 1967. Neither one of them was the first, as experiments on hydrogen as fuel source has been recorded as of 1800’s. We can say, though, that Yull Brown was the one that achieved obtaining HHO gas, which found many industrial applications later on.

Electrolysis

Electrolysis is the passage of a direct electric current through liquid containing mobile ions (electrolyte). Ionic substance is usually an ionic compound dissolved in a solvent (in our case water). An electrical current is applied across a pair of electrodes immersed in the electrolyte. Each electrode attracts ions that are of the opposite charge. Positively charged ions (cations) move towards the electron-providing (negative) cathode. Negatively charged ions (anions) move towards the electron-extracting (positive) anode. The decomposition of the electrolyte makes the hydrogen to be liberated at the negative plate (cathode) and the oxygen at the positive plate (anode).  The standard formulas for water electrolysis and combustion are:

Electrolysis: 2H2O→2H2 + O2

Combustion:  2H2 + O2→ 2H2O

It has been proven that about 250 Btu energy is needed for the water molecules to be split into H2 and O2 gases. And about 300btu (heat or electricity) can be released when the gases are reignited and combine into the end product – water.

In HHO systems the electrolyte used is distilled water together with either NaOH or KOH. The last two are added in order to increase the resistance of the water as the cell works on the capacitance basis.

Electrolysis

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Electrolytic Capacitors

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Brown’s Gas

So Yull Brown discovered that by using a small amount of carefully pulsed electricity across the submerged electrode plates, the atomic bonds of the water break uniquely into HHO, thousands of times more efficiently than with high amperage. HHO gas is of monoatomic structure, compared to O2 and H2 gases, which are diatomic.

Furthermore HHO creates a very cool flame that can be touched briefly without burning the skin, although it can be used to weld metal or destroy a brick at the same time. It was also successfully proved that when used in nuclear plants, radiation from by-products is reduced in the 50-95% range.

Yull Brown said: ”Explosions are destructive. Implosions are creative”

When burned, HHO has only one byproduct: Pure water. Brown discovered another unique property of the HHO gas: When we have 66.67% H and 33.33% O, it will implode instead of explode recombining back into pure water. This implosion produces a huge amount of vacuum energy around 4 times the amount of energy derived from burning HHO and air. Yull brown worked also on developing an engine based on using implosion of HHO gas. Other inventors also had studies on that and it will be most probably soon that such engines will become reality.

Whether it is in home or in the car real time HHO production has been achieved. There is a great potential under this technology and now it is the time to move it forward. This inexpensive way to produce HHO and use it as catalyst in burning fossil fuel is becoming more and more popular. It is an absolutely safe gas which is not stored under pressure, but used on the run, while the system is working.

HHO system differs from the already existing and implemented by some car manufactures hydrogen technology. Hydrogen needs to be pressurized in gas tanks , while HHO is used on demand. HHO can be burned in standard diesel or gasoline motors without or with only minor modifications.  When added to fuel and burned together, because of the Hydrogen high speed of burning, the hydrocarbons of the fuel are burned almost completely, therefore giving practically no toxic emissions and increased engine power. It has been proven that vehicles can run on nothing but HHO, however this technology has not been well studied for practical use on ordinary diesel and gasoline vehicles yet.

Cells

The cell is the main component in the HHO on-demand system.  It uses the cars electricity in order to produce the gas. The cell is made from steel plates which are separated at same distance one from another. The steel usually is 316 grade stainless steel, which has a longer life compared to other steels and is not expensive either. With the time and use electrolyte tends to corrode the steel, especially when the concentration of the electrolyte is high. Cells usually have one or many stacks. A stack is considered several plates put together, one of which is negative, one is positive and the others are neutral. There are many types of cell composition, depending on the demand of gas needed and more specifically depending on the size of the engine the gas is provided to.

As the cell draws amperage from the charging system, which in other words means putting a load on the alternator, and respectively the engine, at a certain point it is becoming unreasonable to increase the amperage as this is affecting the fuel economy of the vehicle. Same is the case when AC is turned on, vehicle consumes more fuel.

In order the system to perform well, the cell should provide enough gas. The practice tests done so far, show that best results are obtained when the production of gas is 0.25 L/min per liter of engine size. So basically if you have a 3l engine, you will need about 0.75 L/min gas production from the cell.  It has been proven also that more HHO gas doesn’t mean more fuel savings. The amount of gas depends mostly on two things; how well the water passes the amperage, and how much amperage travels across the electrodes surface area.

Bubblers

Hydrogen is a highly explosive gas. This is why HHO systems have been said to be unsafe. However this is absolutely not true, as hydrogen dissipates very quickly in the atmosphere and even more it is used on demand. All the gas produced by the cell is sucked by the motor. The only problem with the system could be back-firing. This is easily avoided by introducing a bubbler inline, which has two functions – to purify the gas and to serve as a cutback in case a spark ignites the gas, thus avoiding the damage of the cell. Bubblers are inexpensive way to make the system safe. Some producers also include a one-way valve (flashback arrestor) and also additional filters to purify the gas.

If bubbler is used in cold climate, it could be necessary to fill it up with electrolyte in order to prevent the freezing. Adding alcohol in the electrolyte is another option, but this is bringing down its resistance of the solution and therefore the cell is not performing well.

Electronics

Recent cars use computers in order to create the right fuel/air mixture for the engine in any time. This mixture depends on the input that the computer gets from many sensors in the vehicle (oxygen sensor, temperature of the water, temperature of the air, throttle body position, camshaft position, crankshaft position and others). When HHO gas is introduced in the engine and the fuel is burned more efficiently, the oxygen sensors detect more oxygen. Because of this, the computer of the car is making the fuel/air mixture richer, which means more fuel is injected inside the cylinders. The economy which is obtained by the better burning is then lost because of the computer settings. In order to avoid this vicious circle, we need to install a device to trick the oxygen sensors or the computer readings. There are two ways to do this. The first one is to install FS2-HHO edition chip specially programed for your car, which changes the map settings on your computer. The second one is to use an EFIE. It modifies the input signal from the oxygen sensors , thus making the computer think that the vehicle is running with rich air/fuel mixture. Either way, the results should be the same. There are also other more complex devices to modify the signals from all the sensors, but they require constant monitoring and changing of parameters and are more time consuming.

As already mentioned above, the cell of the HHO system uses electricity to produce HHO gas from water. The amperage it draws is taking sometimes more energy than it gives back by the improved burning. For this reason limiting the amperage is very important. PWM – (pulse with modulator) is a device that is limiting the amperage not to increase more than certain fixed figure. Systems without PWM are not stable as amps consumed change constantly with the creation of heat from the cell.

Lately another type of PWM appeared – dynamic PWM. These modulators take a reference signal from an injector or from a knock sensor in order to determine the revolutions of the engine. They adjust the current according to these revolutions. In this way the cell produces less HHO when the engine is in idle and more when the engine is at load.